Nonces and merkle trees are important components of blockchains. Both are related to efficiency aspects. Verifying a block by means of a nonce is extremely efficient; however, computing a nonce (i.e. mining) is extremely inefficient . A merkle tree is a data structure used in blockchains for summarizing and verifying the integrity of a block in a very efficient way. Hashing a block requires a number of calculations which is a multiple of the block size. Merkle trees reduce this number logarithmically.

Related: Bitcoins and Certificates

Complete Revision of the Federal Data Protection Act

The complete revision's draft of the Federal Data Protection Act is currently in political consultation. Data Protection is to be increased by giving people more control over their private data as well as reinforcing transparancy regarding the handling of confidential data.

Links: draft, report

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