Nonces and merkle trees are important components of blockchains. Both are related to efficiency aspects. Verifying a block by means of a nonce is extremely efficient; however, computing a nonce (i.e. mining) is extremely inefficient . A merkle tree is a data structure used in blockchains for summarizing and verifying the integrity of a block in a very efficient way. Hashing a block requires a number of calculations which is a multiple of the block size. Merkle trees reduce this number logarithmically.

Related: Bitcoins and Certificates

Complete Revision of the Federal Data Protection Act

Complete Revision of the Federal Data Protection Act: „As of 15th September 2017, draft and report for a completely revised Federal Data Protection Act is public. In a first step parliament and the people agreed to adaptations in order to be compliant with EU law. The second part of the revision is debated by the parliament since September 2019. Data Protection is to be increased by giving people more control over their private data as well as reinforcing transparency regarding the handling of confidential data.”


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